KSM  Clinic

'In-patient' acute care Hospital
     Where  Patients  Matter
45-y/o, with a 10-y/o PD          

350 patient mortalities and several other patients with severe morbidity (tumor, intractable dyskinesias, including irregular movements, etc.) resulted in compelling FDA to BAN in 2001 (as, depicted in the diagram above) the use of all medically unsuitable tissue.

Prevalence Rate (existing PD cases)
=  4 per 1,000 population (worldwide)

PD is NOT described as a hereditary disorder, or transmitted at birth.  Thus, it is an "acquired" condition,  implying an 'environmental-genetic' role, later in life (though, PD has been diagnosed at, as early as age 14).  Again, NO specific gene for PD is identified, to date.

In 1817, James Parkinson described the disease as a condition in which there is a progressive loss of nerve cells (located in the midbrain part of the brain-stem) that secrete a chemical substance, called Dopamine. Cause unknown!

The resulting loss of Dopamine mediates 'lack of inhibition /control' on another chemical substance, called Acetylcholine that is responsible for the muscle contraction, in general.

ALL forms of PD result from a relative loss of Dopamine-mediated inhibition of Acetylcholine, due to “functional” nerve cell degeneration!!

Therefore, the patient with this condition, known as Parkinson's Disease (PD)
has the following symptoms and signs of:

Hands: Tremors, Shakes ('shaking' palsy)
Gait: Slow /Dragging feet (bradykinesia), Small /Shuffling steps, Unstable walk
Posture: Rigid (cogwheel)
Face: Mask-like, with minimal expression
Speech: Slurred /Slow, Monotonous
Mouth: Drooling /Dripping saliva
Head and Limbs: Involuntary movements (paralysis agitans) 


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